Since then, these populations had developed different ways of use and handling of the natural resources and distinct forms of social organization between itself. Consensus also does not exist, between the archaeologists, on the seniority of the occupation human being in the South America. Until it has some years, the more accepted point of view on this subject was of that the first inhabitants of the South American continent would have fond have more than 11 a thousand years little. In Brazil, the presence human being is registered in the situated period between 11 and 12 a thousand years behind. But new evidences have been found in the Bahia and the Piau that would prove to be older this occupation, with what many archaeologists do not agree.

Thus, it has a trend each bigger time of the researchers to review these dates, since recent research comes indicating much more old datings. Historical panorama of the aboriginal population in Brazil Commemorated for the first time in Brazil in 1944, day 19 of April became the day of the indian. it dates was instituted by Getlio Vargas and, since then, hardly it has unobserved past. Day 19 of April, when placing in guideline the aboriginal question, today questions in them on the possibilities to coexist, of respectful, worthy form and constructive, with more than the 210 aboriginal peoples who exist in the country, speaking more than 180 languages and proper dialects, spread in innumerable villages in praticamentetodos the states of Brazil (only in the Piau and the Rio Grande of the North it does not have indians). The Brazilian indians were divided in tribes, in accordance with the linguistic trunk which belonged: tupi-guaranis (region of the coast), macro-j or tapuias (region of Central Plateaus, arauaques (Amaznia) and carabas (Amaznia). When arriving at this land that today we call Brazil, the Portuguese had more than found a population esteem in 3 million people. .